There is a debate among various Muslim communities about what is Islam and who are the true Muslims. The debate is an old one, but these questions have assumed greater importance in recent decades. Is a religion a set of articles of faith and rituals independent of its adherents’ agency and or is the religion an institutionalized bargain, a power contract between the individual and the society? This book examines these questions through incisive exploration of social practices and political activism in Bangladesh. Lucidly written and cogently argued, this book has relevance to other Muslim-majority countries, and Muslim communities around the world.